Do you know “Chaturanga” an ancient game which some people believe chess evolved from? It was played back in the Gupta Empire in India before the 7th century AD. Now, let’s have a quick look on the basics of chess.
Chess is played by 2 participants. The board has 64 squares – 32 black squares and 32 white squares. Each player has 16 pieces. The following below is in order of strength:
The Queen is the most powerful piece, a pawn is the weakest piece and the King is the most valuable piece.
How the pieces look
Rook: The rook looks like a small tower
Pawn: you can recognise it by:
There’s eight of it
It’s at the very front
Queen: The Queen has a small, round-shaped crown.
Knight: The Knight looks like a horse.
King: The King looks like it has a plus on top.
Bishop: The bishop looks like it has a sad smile and looks up.
The rules of the Pieces
Pawns can only move 1 step forward at a time unless it wants to capture a piece 1 step forward diagonally. The pawn can move 1 or 2 steps forward in its opening move.
The Knight which looks like a horse moves in a L shaped pattern. If the knights in the centre it can move to 8 different squares. It can leap over pieces but it can’t capture the ones it leaps over. It can only capture the pieces it lands on. It’s the only piece that can leap over other pieces.
The King is the most valuable piece and without it a game cannot last. It can move to any square but it can only move one step at a time.
The queen is the most powerful piece in the chess. It can move anywhere vertically, diagonally or horizontally.
The Bishop can only move diagonally to any square.
People usually think that the Rook look like a small castle, it can move horizontally or vertically in a straight line to any square.
Each piece has its own points.
Ooh, remember white starts first in the game.
Do you know where Chess was invented?
Chess was originated in India before the 6th century but some people thought that it was invented in China. Initially, from India, it spread to Persia. When the Muslims conquered Persia, they quickly spread to Europe and other countries.
How to set a Chess board?
First have to layout the board with the white square on the bottom right corner. Most people say ‘white on the right’.
Then, you set the eight pieces of Pawns in the penultimate row.
After that, place the 2 Rooks in the left and the right corner squares below the corner Pawns.
Followed by the 2 Knights right next to the Rooks.
Next, you have to place the 2 Bishops right next to the Knights.
Then, the Queen goes to the white square left in the board.
Finally, the King is positioned in the black square left in the board
If you want to know more about the techniques to be used in Chess, wait for Advance Chess which is expected soon.
Welcome to the ancient city and Italy's capital – Rome. It is one of the world’s most romantic cities. The beauty of the amazing city will melt your heart and will make you fall in love with the country. Though it can be hot during the peak summer and overcrowded there is so much incredible, ancient history and heritage to be explored.
The Eternal Land of History
It is a city with nearly 3,000 years of history with globally influential art, architecture, awe-inspiring ruins and culture on display. It is a magical place for photography – when you think about the ancient streets, the world famous Colloseum, St Peter’s Basilica, Roman Forum, Trevi fountain, Pantheon, the Spanish Steps and many more.
The country has a long history, as Rome was founded in 753BC. After the Roman Empire broke down in 395AD, there were many separate kingdoms and cities evolved. It has left a powerful mark on Western culture and cuisine including fashion Capital Milan and other major cities Florence, Venice, Naples and Pisa.
The city of seven hills
The city of Rome was built on seven hills (Aventine, Caelian, Capitoline (where city hall is), Esquiline, Palatine (where the big archaeological digs are), Quirinal and Viminal). There are lots of must-sees and several activities to do here giving you a solid senses of its past. No matter how you choose to spend your time here, you will be treated with sensational views, world-class attractions, a history lesson and scrumptious food. It’s always been a synonym for "mouth-melting food," offering an unmistakable explosion of flavors and aromas. Enjoy the amazing Roman pastas and Fettuccine ai Funghi which is our favourite.
Now, Let's dig into 10 phenomenal must visit sights in Rome (aka Caput Mundi - Capital of the world) -
Piazza Venezia & Altare Della Patria
St Peter’s Basilica and the Vatican Museums
Piazza di Spagna & Spanish Steps
Bocca della Verità & The Mouth of Truth
It is the world's 39th most popular tourist attraction with roughly 4 million tourists a year. The construction began in the first century under the rule of the Roman Emperors: Vespasian (69-79 CE), Titus (79-81 CE) and Domitian (81-96 AD). These three Emperors are known as Flavian Dynasty and the amphitheatre was named in Latin for its association with their family name (Flavius). It is the largest amphitheatre and was capable of holding up to 80,000 spectators who came to see a whole range of games:
1] Animal hunts- This was an event of shooting animals with bow and arrows.
2] The Bestiarii – The gladiators fought with wild beasts such as tigers and leopards here. They were trained animal-handlers and killers.
3] Criminal fights - Criminals were also sentenced to fight wild beasts but without any skills, weapons or armour.
4] Velites - Spear Fighters fought each others.
The Roman Forum and the Circus Maximus
From the Colosseum you can walk to the Roman Forum, which is a very short walk. The ticket to the Roman Forum is free if you have the Colloseum ticket but the other way round… Well it’s not exactly true; you cannot visit the Colloseum if you have bought the ticket for the Roman Forum.
The Roman Forum is an impressive sprawl of ruins. In the Middle Ages it was known as the Campo Vaccino ('Cow Field'). At the end of the path, you'll come to Via Sacra and the Tempio di Giulio Cesare. The Roman Forum Mark’s where Julius Caesar was cremated.
You can extend your walk to Circus Maximus which is in very close approximately. This place is an ancient Roman chariot-racing stadium which was built in the Roman times; it was a huge engaging stadium. Lots of people visit the chariot stadium every year. The Circus Maximus is an amazing place to visit and an open air area where you can sit down and have a break.
Altare Della Patria
Italy became one nation only in 1861 and since then includes the islands of Sicily (a must-see beauty) and Sardegna (a jaw-dropping sight). Victor Emmanuel was the first king of Italy. In honour of his name, this wow-inducing monument was built in Piazza Venezia. It is 135 metres wide and is 70 metres high.
There is a little walkway on the road in front of The Emmanuel palace where the view is amazing. Sometimes the soldiers march around in the palace. This palace also holds the tomb of a soldier. It is right near the Roman Forum and the colosseum.
Vatican City is a separate and the smallest country and also has St Peter’s Basilica - the home of the Pope. This major Papal basilica is one of the world's most famous church in the whole, wide world and in Vatican City. It marks where Peter was crucified by Roman Emperor - Augustus Caesar. It is located in Piazza San Pietro.
Castel Sant’Angelo - also known as Mausoleum of Hadrian - is a castle in the Vatican City. It is commissioned by Roman Emperor Hadrian as a mausoleum for him and his family. A secret corridor (Passetto di Borgo) connects Castel Sant'Angelo with the Vatican. It is located near the River Tiber and the castle is currently a museum with turbulent history. The drum was covered with an earthen tumulus topped with a statue of Hadrian driving a quadriga.
Vatican Museums is a well-liked visitor destination with more than 4.2 million tourists per year, making it the world's 37th most visited destination.
The Trevi is the most spectacular fountain in Rome. In the centre of the fountain is a statue of Oceanus, the Greek Sea God, standing under a triumphal arch. His chariot is being pulled by two sea horses, one wild and one docile, representing the opposing moods of the sea. Two Tritons are leading the horses, the older Triton holding a twisted shell to announce their passage.
If you’ve been to Rome you would have probably been to Trevi Fountain and tossed a coin over your shoulder and into the water. The legend of the Trevi fountain says that if you throw a coin into it, you will return to Rome or Italy one day. Trevi fountain is free to visit. Approximately 3,000 Euros are tossed into the fountain every day and an estimated €1.4 million was thrown into the fountain in 2016. However, there are regular attempts to steal coins from the fountain though it is illegal.
A walk from the Spanish Steps to the Pantheon
The Spanish Steps, a great place to sit down and enjoy the atmosphere and views of the Eternal City, consists of 138 steps. At the bottom of the steps you can find a fountain called Fontana Della Barcaccia, or “Fountain of the Old Boat”. The best time to visit is at the evening. On the 20th March, 1986 the very first McDonalds was opened in Italy near the Spanish Steps. Starting at the Spanish Steps you can also visit the Trevi fountain and this walk can be extended to the Pantheon and Piazza Navona.
As we know that everyone likes football Stadio Olimpico will be a good place to visit as lots of matches take place there. Stadio Olimpico is the largest sports attraction of Rome and is the home stadium of two major football teams which play for serie A – SS Lazio & AS Roma. The stadium boasts roughly 80,000 spectators. It is one of the five European stadiums to host the FIFA World Cup.
The Mouth Of Truth
The Mouth of Truth is a marble mask which stands against the left wall of the portico of the Santa Maria in Cosmedin church. The Bocca Della Varita “The mouth of truth” is simply one of the best sculptures in Rome. It is the face of a man with its mouth, nostrils and eyes wide open. If you put your hand in the Mouth of Truth that is said to bite the hands off of liars.
Other legend was told in the Roman times, it said that the rich wife of a Roman man was accused of committing adultery. The woman didn’t accept that she did it but her husband wanted to put her to the test by making her hand go inside the stone mouth Bocca Della Varita. It is so famous that even Hollywood gave it a place in a film about the city called Roman Holiday. Even now lots of people line up to see this amazing monument.
Well, you need to visit the City of Love and other cities in Italy at least once in your life. And stay there to explore the blissful landscape – from the snow-capped mountains of the Alps to the crystal clear waters of the Mediterranean. After the first trip, am pretty sure you would love to visit again as it’s the best travel choice and there are plenty of places to see and things to do. And most importantly famous for its beautiful cars. Alfa Romeo, Bugatti, Ferrari, Maserati, and Lamborghini are known to everyone. And, also it’s a great place to travel by Europe’s fastest train. Italian High Speed FRECCIAROSSA trains travel the length and breadth of Italy, reaching speeds of 400 km/hr, entering into the heart of the major cities and shortening distances.
Enjoy your holidays in Rome and return home with the best souvenir and a memory of your incredible adventure.